According to the definition adopted by UNESCO, IT – is a set of interrelated scientific, technological and engineering disciplines that study the methods of effective labor organization of people employed handling and storage of information, computer technology and methods of organization and interaction with people and production equipment, and their practical applications, as well as associated with all these social, economic and cultural issues. Themselves, they require a complex IT training, high initial cost and high-tech equipment. Their implementation should begin with the creation of software, the formation of information flows in systems training.
IT Manager is the person responsible for quality and timely execution of development projects of information and software systems, based on the use of modern technologies of global computer networks. The manager has large projects or complex projects (programs) that include several sub-projects. Basic skills are the skills of managerial work. There are also accepted prepared design solutions and there is a control of their implementation. The project team works through project managers or group leaders.
IT Manager performs the following functions on organizational performance: shall prepare a technical proposal for the project; involved in agreeing a contract for the project; to contribute to the organizational and administrative documents for the project (orders, reports, statements, etc.) or carry it, if acting as a manager of a small project; provides training and conducting of the project team; arrange for the preparation and conduct of technical advice on the project; arrange for the preparation and conduct of the governing councils of the project; participates in the work of other advisory bodies for the project; responsible for the execution of the project team of regulations; manages the project work (planning, organization and control of execution); conducts operational reporting on the progress of the project to the appropriate levels of management (department head, the company that manages council); analyze the progress of the project (individual stages, the whole project) and the preparation of relevant reports; maintain a register of issues on the project, analyzes the problems and prepare proposals for their solution; keeps track of project costs, sign the form of working time (Time Sheets); communicates with the customer on the project within its jurisdiction; Engineering and technical activities: shall form the common objectives; analyzes the subject area; organizes the design; arrange for implementation; arrange the introduction; arrange testing and documentation, according to Management Information Systems.
Question 2. What are several important computer hardware developments that you expect to happen in the next 10 years? How will these affect the business use of computers?
There are many opinions considering the future of the computer hardware developments. There are many predictions and superstitions considering the development of new technologies. We all know that in recent years, computer and computer technology have become an integral part of our lives. Neither firm not their job can exist without computers and sophisticated software. Twenty years ago, the computer was a luxury, and it could be seen very rarely. Computers were used only by large enterprises.
Now, there is a computer in every home, almost every family. Even the students do their homework using the computer. We can say that the computer – this is the greatest achievement of mankind. Currently, a hugely popular start is to use micro PC, according to Hardware developments (2011).
According to scientists and researchers in the near future, personal computers will change dramatically, as is already underway to develop technology that had previously never been used. Approximately in 2020-2025 should be available molecular computers, quantum computers, optical computers and bio computers. The computer of the future should facilitate and simplify the life of a man ten times more. Will it be necessary in ten years? Probably yes. People get used to everything, especially to the newest and exclusive gadgets, they adapt to them and then can not imagine their lives without the technologies.
Virtual reality is probably still one of the most interesting and mysterious notions of the computer industry. Appearing in the last century, this concept still attracts scientists, designers, filmmakers, writers of science fiction, and of course gaming. Virtual reality – an image of the artificial world, the simulated means and transmitted to Currently, virtual reality technologies are widely applied in various fields of human activity: engineering and design, mining, military technology, construction, training equipment and simulators, marketing and advertising, entertainment, etc. ..
Computers develops with insane speed and sometimes very difficult to keep track or follow it. But we can say with absolute certainty that high technology – this is our future and it is a success of all humanity. In this, the development process will not stop. Every day there are produced new and more sophisticated computer models.
Question 3. A medium size school district is experiencing large growth and is operating with a clearly obsolete information system. Most schools have developed their own systems to manage school records. Each school wants to maintain control over their data. The central office maintains a networked relational database system which is available through the Central Office Local Area Network. The central office maintains records on 250,000 students.
The schools send the Central Office paper, excel spread sheets, database extractions and word documents that contain the data to be entered into the central office database. These records are mailed into the Central Office staff and are re-keyed into the mainframe.
The school district would also like to provide students and parents access to school announcements, homework assignments, grades, and emergency alerts.
The School Superintendent doesn’t understand or have time to sort out the modern technologies.
Computer Technology or Information Technology (IT) – is a generic name of technology, responsible for the storage, transmission, processing, protection and reproduction of information using computers. It is impossible to imagine a modern production, science, culture, sport and economy that would apply to computers. Computers help people in work, entertainment, education and research.
Computer technology – us a cutting edge science of the XXI century. Information technology is considered a broad class of disciplines and areas related to technology management, storage, processing and transmitting information. Information technology – is also a process that uses a set of means and methods of collection, storage, processing and transmission of data (primary data) for information on the status of the quality of the new facility, process or phenomenon (information product). This process consists of a sequence of well-regulated operations, activities and stages of varying difficulty over the data stored on computers. The main objective of information technology is a result of concerted action on processing the primary information to obtain the necessary information to the user, according to Computer technology (2011).
Most information technology means computer technology. In particular, IT deals with the use of computers and software for storage, transformation, protection, processing, transmitting and receiving information. For this reason, computer specialists are often called IT specialists. Modern technologies help organizations and institutions to achieve better results and to be modern. For example, schools will have more possibilities if they actively use new technologies, and there are created systems to manage school records. It is important to implement newest possibilities and make positive changes in schools, as this determines the children’s future. The school district would also like to provide students and parents access to school announcements, homework assignments, grades, and emergency alerts, which will be easier to do with the online opportunities. This way more time can be saved and new perspectives can be opened for students, their parents, and teachers. Each school has to be prepared for the changes, it should accept them and implement their creative ideas in order to improve the situation. If technologies can change things for the better, it should be definitely implemented and approved.
a. Explain why protocols are necessary for network operation.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) – is a protocol for management of communication networks based on the architecture of UDP. It is based on the concept of TMN in 1980-1990, various standards bodies, developed a series of protocols for managing data networks with a different range of functions implementing TMN. To one of these types of management protocols include SNMP.
Also, this technology is designed to provide management and control of devices and applications in the communications network through the exchange of management information between agents that reside on network devices, and managers, located at the control station. SNMP defines a network as a set of network management stations and network elements (the main machine, gateways and routers, terminal servers), which together provide administrative communication between network management stations and network agent, according to QuickStudy: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) (2002).
Normally, when using SNMP manageable there are control systems. The composition of the control system includes a component called an agent who sends records management system. Essentially, SNMP agents passed on information management control systems as variables (such as “free memory”, “system name”, “number of processes running.”)
The control system can receive information through protocol operations GET, GETNEXT and GETBULK. An agent can send a request on their own without the data using the transaction protocol, or TRAP INFORM. Control systems can also send configuration updates or control requests, using SET operation for direct control of the system. Configuration and management operations are used only when needed changes in the network infrastructure. Monitoring operations are usually performed on a regular basis.
Variables available via SNMP, are organized in a hierarchy. These hierarchies and other metadata (such as the type and variable description) describe the Management Information Bases.
Management Information Bases (MIBs). SNMP does not define what kind of information (which variables) driven system should provide. On the contrary, SNMP uses an extensible model, in which the information available is determined by the Management Information Bases (MIB – Management Information Base). MIBs describe the structure of management information devices. They use a hierarchical namespace, which contains a unique object identifier (born object identifier (OID)). Roughly speaking, each unique object identifier identifies a variable that can be read or set via SNMP.
MIB hierarchy can be depicted as a tree with a nameless root, the levels of which are assigned to different organizations. At the highest level MIB OID belong to different standards organizations, while at the lower level are allocated OID affiliated agencies. This model provides management at all layers of the network model OSI, as MIB can be defined for any type of data and transactions.
A managed object – this is one of any number of characteristics specific to the managed device. A managed object includes one or more instances of an object (identified by OID), which are actually variables. There are two types of managed objects:Scalar objects define a single instance of an object; Tabular objects define multiple related object instances that are grouped in tables of MIB.
An example of a managed object can be at Input, which is a scalar object containing a single instance of an object, an integer that indicates the total number of incoming packets on the AppleTalk network interface of the router. Object identifier (OID) uniquely identifies a managed object in the hierarchy of MIB.
b. Explain how packets make a network more efficient.
Internet Protocol, or IP – is a routable network protocol, network layer protocol family TCP / IP. The IP protocol is used for non-guaranteed delivery of data, separated by the so-called packets from one node to another. This means that at the level of the protocol (the third level of the network model OSI) there are not given guarantees reliable for packet delivery to the addressee. In particular, the packets may arrive in the wrong order, which were sent, duplicated (when they come, two copies of the package, in reality, it happens very rarely) be damaged (corrupted packets are usually destroyed), or not arrive at all. Guarantee error-is when free packet delivery protocols provide higher (transport layer) network model OSI – for example, TCP – which use IP as the transport, according to What is IP address (Internet Protocol Address)? (2010).
In today’s world, Internet uses the IP version of the fourth, also known as IPv4. In the IP protocol version of the network each node is assigned IP-address length 4 octets (4 bytes). In this case the computers in the subnet bits are united by common initial address. The number of bits, the total for that subnet is called a subnet mask (previously used by the division of the address space into classes – A, B, C; class network is determined by the range of the high-order octet and determined the number of addressable nodes on the network, is now used classless addressing).
At the present time is put into operation the sixth version of the protocol – IPv6, which allows you to address considerably more nodes than IPv4. This version features enhanced bit addresses, encryption built-in capability and some other features. The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is associated with laborious service providers and software vendors and can not be executed simultaneously. As of mid-2010 to over 3000 Internet networks operating over IPv6. In comparison, at the same time, the address space of IPv4, there were over 320 000 networks, but in IPv6 networks are much larger than in IPv4.
IP-packet – is a formatted block of information transmitted via computer network. The compounds of computer networks that do not support packets, such as traditional compounds such as “point-point” in the telecommunications, simply transfer data as a sequence of bytes, characters or bits. When using a batch format network can transmit longer messages more reliably and efficiently.
c. What is Broadband. When should it be used? What other options besides Broadband are available?
Broadband – is technology transfer network (you can use both copper and fiber-optic cable) at which data is transmitted in the form of modulated RF signals. As a rule, they are passed by more than one signal, which is distributed in a special way the carrier frequency band. Broadband cable is usually shared by multiple networks or systems, such as television signal transmission systems or video conferencing, according to The future of Broadband is not just the Internet (2011).
The term broadband is used to describe high-speed networks that transmit both signals from the various services, such as data, voice and video. Connection with a broadband public network computer intends that the Internet allows individuals, institutions and companies to use computer communications in new ways. They can make their own TV shows with a simple camcorder, watch TV shows from around the world, listen to radio from thousands of radio stations, phone calls and communicate over a network. There are, of course, all of today’s Internet services, from e-mail to World Wide Web.
All in all, computer technologies are fully engaged in the everyday lives of people. And a lot of people already can not live without computer games, Internet communication and many other things that give the new computer technologies. Further development of computer technology is aimed to reduce the size of plane parts, reducing power consumption and the producers of computer components tend to increase system performance. Also, it is important to ensure the autonomy of the person of the company producing computer components began the production of portable computers: notebooks and netbooks. Now, computer manufacturers have stepped forward, as they began the production of tablet computers. Now, on a flat screen with your fingers you can give different instructions to a computer that previously was done by using a computer mouse and keyboard. It can be said that further development of computer technology brings even greater possibilities for humanity.
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